The philosophical foundation or ideology of Indonesia is called “Pancasila”, which has been the basis for sources of Indonesian laws as well as parameters of public orders.  “Pancasila” comprises of five inseparable and interrelated principles :

  1. Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa
  2. Kemanusiaan Yang Adil Dan Beradab
  3. Persatuan Indonesia
  4. Kerakyatan Yang Dipimpin Oleh Hikmat Kebijaksanaan dalam Permusyawaratan/Perwakilan
  5. Keadilan Sosial Bagi Seluruh Rakyat Indonesia

In the English language:

  1. Belief in the one and only God
  2. Just and civilized humanity
  3. The unity of Indonesia
  4. Democracy guided by the inner wisdom in the unanimity arising out of deliberations amongst representatives
  5. Social justice for the entire people of Indonesia



The Indonesian coat of arms consists of a golden eagle, called "GARUDA," that is a figure from ancient Indonesian epics. It is also pictured on many temples from the 6th Century. The eagle is a symbol of creative energy. Its principal color, gold, suggests the greatness of the nation. The black color represents nature. There are 17 feathers on each wing, 8 on the tail, and 45 on the neck. These figures stand for the date of Indonesia's independence proclamation: 17 August 1945.

The motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal lka" (Unity in Diversity), is enshrined on a banner held in the eagle's talons. This old Javanese motto was introduced by Empu Tantular, a saint of the Majapahit Kingdom, in the 15th Century. It signifies the unity of the Indonesian people despite their diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds. The shield symbolizes self-defense in struggle and protection of oneself. The red and white colors on the shield's background denote the colors of the Indonesian national flag. The five symbols on the shield represent the state philosophy of Pancasila, the foundation of the Indonesian state.




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